Spinning Mills in India: A Global Leader in Yarn Trade

The spinning mill industry in India holds a prominent position in the global textile market. With its second-largest spinning capacity of 48 million spindles, India is not only a global leader but also the market leader in yarn trade, exporting approximately 1.2 million tons of yarn with a 30% share.

The history of spinning mills in India dates back to the early years of the cotton textile industry. The cotton-growing regions of Rajasthan, Maharashtra, and Gujarat housed the majority of the cotton textile sector. Availability of raw materials, market, transport, labor, moist climate, and other factors contributed to localization. This industry played a vital role in Bombay's economy at the beginning of the 20th century, but it quickly fell after the country's independence, Largely due to deregulation beginning in the mid-1980s.

Spinning is the most important sector of the textile industry in terms of output, employment, and foreign exchange earnings.

Spinning mills in India:

Spinning in India is heavily centralized in the states of Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, and Gujarat. These states have a long-standing history and reputation in the textile industry.

Here are some of the major areas spinning mills are located in India:

Tamil Nadu, in particular, is a major hub for spinning mills in India. According to Business Standard, It boasts a significant number of spinning mills, with approximately 2,032 mills out of the total 3,542 mills in the country. Highest in the country. The major cities with spinning mills in the state are Coimbatore, Salem, Tirupur, and Erode.

Super Spinning Mills Limited, Bannari Amman Spinning Mills Limited, RG Spinning Mills Private Limited and Sri Balaji Spinning Mills are some of the top spinning mills in Tamil Nadu.

Next on the list is Gujarat. According to Times Of India, the state has 120 spinning mills out of which 75 are in Saurashtra. Other major cities with spinning mills in Gujarat are Ahmedabad, Surat and Vadodara.

Sanvi Spinning Mill Pvt. Ltd, Shri Muniveer Spinning Mills, Vaibhav Ginning & Spinning Mills Pvt Ltd and Marutinandan Spinning Mill are some of the top spinning mills in Gujarat.

Maharashtra is third on the list and has Mumbai as the largest center in India, having 63 mills out of the state's total of 122 mills. Other major cities with spinning mills in Maharashtra are Nagpur and Solapur.

Trimurty Spinning Mills Pvt.Ltd, Sanjay Gandhi Coop Spinning Mills, Suryaamba Spinning Mills Limited and GTN Spinning Mills are some of the top spinning mills in Maharashtra.

Other than these states Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Manipur have a considerable amount of spinning mills.

Growth and Development of Spinning Mills

The spinning sector in India has witnessed significant growth and development, driven by policy reforms and technological advancements. Policy changes that began in the 1980s and 1990s were extremely important in boosting technical efficiency and global competitiveness, especially in the spinning industry.

These reforms paved the way for the modernization and expansion of spinning mills in the country. India's spinning segment is fairly modernized, with approximately 35 to 40 percent of spindles being less than 10 years old. The industry has embraced technological advancements, and during 1989-98, India was the leading buyer of spinning machinery, accounting for 28% of global shipments

This modernization has contributed to the industry's competitiveness on the global stage.

Contribution to the Textile Industry

The spinning mills in India play a vital role in the overall textile industry. They form an integral part of the textile value chain, ensuring the availability of quality yarn for further processing. Yarn production in India has shown consistent growth, with an annual increase of 4.5% between 1990 and 2004.

The spinning mills have been instrumental in meeting the growing demand for blended and 100% manmade yarns, reflecting the changing trends in domestic and international markets.

What are the Different Types of Spinning Mills?

Different mills use different spinning techniques and are hence known for that. Composite mills are relatively large-scale mills that integrate spinning, weaving, and sometimes fabric finishing, all under one roof.

In other major textile-producing countries, composite mills are common. However, in India, they now account for only about 3% of the output in the textile sector. It's important to note that while spinning mills themselves use different spinning techniques, the classification of spinning mills is typically based on factors like size, production capacity, and the type of fibers they use.

So, let's look at some of the popular spinning techniques.

What Are Some Popular Spinning Techniques?

1. Ring Spinning:

Ring spinning is the most popular and worldwide used spinning technique. In this method, fibers such as cotton, wool, or flax are drawn out into a roving, which is then attenuated by using drawing rollers. The attenuated roving is then looped and twisted around a spindle that is housed inside a separately revolving ring flyer. The spindle imparts a twist to the fiber strand, and the yarn is wound onto a bobbin due to the traveler and ring combination. Ring spinning is a continuous process, and the yarn produced is of high quality and strength.

2. Rotor Spinning:

Rotor spinning is a more recent method of yarn formation compared to ring spinning. In this method, a continuous supply of fibers is delivered from delivery rollers off a drafting system or from an opening unit. The fibers are then separated by rigorous drafting and collected in a rotor cup. The rotor spins rapidly, imparting a twist to the fibers, and the yarn is continuously taken off by the delivery shaft and the pressure roller through the nozzle and the draw-off tube and wound onto a cross-wound package. Rotor spinning is a high-speed process, and the yarn produced is cheaper than ring-spun yarn. However, rotor-spun yarns are more even, somewhat weaker, and have a harsher feel than ring-spun yarns.

3. Vortex Spinning:

Vortex spinning is a relatively new spinning technique that uses high-speed airflow to insert a twist into the yarn. The process involves drawing out cotton sliver and drafting it to the desired yarn count via a four-roller apron drafting system. The fibers are then collected on a perforated drum, where they are twisted into yarn. The vortex spinning technique utilizes high-speed airflow to insert a twist into the yarn, which greatly increases the rotational speed of the fiber strand, making the process faster and more energy-efficient. The yarn produced by vortex spinning is less hairy, has low pilling, and has higher abrasion resistance.

In addition to the main spinning techniques, there are other notable spinning techniques that contribute to the diverse world of yarn production such as worsted spinning technique and hand spinning technique.

4. Worsted Spinning

Worsted Spinning is a specialized technique used to produce smooth and strong yarn. It involves aligning the fibers parallel to each other before twisting them. Worsted spinning is commonly used for producing high-quality yarns for fine fabrics, such as suiting materials and high-end knitwear.

5. Hand spinning

Hand spinning an ancient craft predating industrial mills, uses a spindle or wheel to transform fibers into yarn. Artisans and hobbyists value its personalized, artistic touch, creating unique, handcrafted yarns.

6. Air-Jet Spinning:

Air-jet spinning is a technique that uses high-speed airflow to insert twists into fibers, creating yarn that is less hairy and has unique properties. Air-jet spinning is known for its high-speed production and energy efficiency, producing yarn wounds about two to three times faster than rotor yarns and about 20 to 30 times faster than ring yarns. It is used for a variety of applications, including apparel, home textiles, and industrial textiles

7. Twistless Spinning:

is a technique that produces yarn without any twist. This process produces spun yarn that is alternatively twisted in S and Z twists, with varying lengths between each twist. Twistless spinning is used for producing fancy yarns with unique textures and appearances

8. Self-Twist spinning

Self-Twist spinning is a method where Two strands are twisted and plied in a single step using the spinning technique to create a two-fold yarn with an even distribution of torque. The self-twist spinning method is used for producing fancy yarns with unique textures and appearances.


Spinning mills in India have established themselves as global leaders in the yarn trade. With a significant spinning capacity and a focus on modernization and competitiveness, the industry contributes significantly to the overall textile sector. While challenges exist, the spinning mills in India continue to explore opportunities for growth and innovation, ensuring their continued prominence in the global textile market.